Horticulture is the subdivision of agriculture. It is a modern art and science of growing crops. Also, it involves marketing and the use of intensively, high-value cultivated plants. Therefore, it is suitable for small farms, gardens, and enclosed plots.
Horticulture consists of many crops, including vegetables, fruits, flowers, aromatic plants, tuber crops, plantation crops, spices, mushrooms, etc. These crops need different weather, agro-climate cognition of temperate, arid zones, and subtropical.
Horticulture uses the broadest range of highly advanced tools and technologies. Moreover, they made equipment with the latest technology to meet the demand for horticulture farming. It is a scientific methodology that helps to make the high crops yield with the required quality.
Types of Horticulture
Horticulture has two types as follows.
It is developing and growing for others and includes cash crops that provide income. Commercial horticulture accomplished operations according to the demand of the market. It is called professional horticulture because its production depends on market needs.
It is domestic as it is growing to complete the self and family needs. Amateur is vocational horticulture.
Horticulture Farming In India
- Horticulture farming is a new way of agriculture that involves advanced and modern technologies. It improves the farmer’s economic status. Seasonal availability of vegetables and fruits throughout the year improves per capita consumption of 40 gm to 85 gm of fruits and 95 gm to 175 gm of vegetables.
- Horticulture farming plays an essential role in women’s empowerment. Also, it provides many employment opportunities to women in floriculture, mushroom cultivation, vegetable seed production, etc.
- Vegetables and fruits are both growing in horticulture farming. India produces temperate as well as tropical vegetables and fruits.
- India grows 50+ varieties of vegetables on about 4 million hectares.
- India’s major vegetable crops are onion, potato, cauliflower, peas, tomato, okra, cabbage, brinjal, and cucurbits.
Following are the popular varieties of Horticulture crops. These types of this crop can give you a high yield by using suitable methods and machines like Eicher 485 and more.
Oranges: Cherrapunjee and Nagpur are famous for Oranges.
Mangoes: Mangoes varieties are Dasheri, Safeda, Sindoori, Langda, Hapus, etc. UP, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and AP are the central regions of Mangoes.
Bananas: Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, and Mizoram grow bananas extensively.
Lichi & Guava: Uttarakhand, Bihar, and UP are famous for Litchi and guava.
Pineapple: Meghalaya is the central region of pineapple.
Grapes: AP and Maharashtra mainly provide Grapes.
Vegetables: India grows 13% of the vegetables globally. Also, the country mainly produces cauliflower, onion, peas, brinjal, tomato, potatoes, and cabbage.
Horticulture Farming Operation
Horticulture farming needs the following operations during the complete crop season. Apart from these operations, you should prepare the land for them with the help of good quality tractors like Eicher 333.
When a plant develops with or without help, in a favored design, eliminating or securing a portion of its parts to give it a superior system or better shape, the activity is called Training.
Following are the systems of Training available in horticulture farming:-
Central Leader System: The tree’s main stem, allowing it to develop straight from the ground level to the top, is called a tree’s central axis. The smaller branches extend from this central axis in many directions. This tree grows tall and bears fruits generally near the top, and lower limbs bear fewer fruits.
Open center system – In this system, the tree’s main trunk is allowed to grow to the desired height, and the apex leads induce lateral branches and result in the center tree being low-headed and open. It facilitates the harvesting and thinning of many fruits and, at the same time, performs plant protection operations.
Modified Leader System – This system is the modified version of the central leader system and an open center system. The main stem of trees develops for a few years. Moreover, the tree is relatively robust and vigorously spread, allowing simple orchard management operations.
The pruning step includes cutting off dead, dying, or diseased branches. Effective removal of any plant element or branches, improving the yield quality, defined the pruning. This step accomplishes while it becomes ready to make fruits and flowers. Pruning maintains the balance of fruiting and flowering. It removes the pest-infected branches and also ensures adequate sunlight for plant growth.
The staking process provides support to the plant, mostly tomato plants. It keeps the plant above the ground and helps maintain its health. Also, staking facilitates the dusting and spraying of fungicides and pesticides.
Transplanting is an agronomic practice where plant seedlings are moved and planted in growing places. After 4-5 weeks of sowing, seedlings are ready in solanaceous crops.
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